An examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a small camera or flexible endoscope, which is inserted down the throat under sedation. An EGD is also referred to as an upper endoscopy. EGD is performed to diagnose and sometimes treat various upper gastrointestinal diseases.

Esophageal dilation is a technique used to stretch or open a narrowed or strictured portion of the esophagus during an EGD.

A specific type of dilation that allows the gastroenterologist to dilate a stricture using a specifically designed plastic balloon that is placed through the endoscope and across a stricture.  By inflating the balloon, a stricture is stretched and opened.

An injection of a solution in the lining of the mucosa of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum.  The technique is used to treat bleeding ulcers, assist in polypectomy, and to mark an area with ink (tattooing).

During endoscopy, a gastroenterologist may place rubber bands over esophageal varices in an attempt to eradicate them and make that less apt to bleed in the future or to arrest acute bleeding.

During an EGD, the gastroenterologist attaches a small monitoring device to the lining of the esophagus 6 cm above the stomach.  The monitor measures acidity, or pH levels, over the course of 24 and 48 hours.  The monitoring device detaches from the esophageal wall naturally and then passes through the gastrointestinal tract.

This specialized endoscopic procedure involves a technique in which the endoscope is deeply inserted into the small intestine using a double balloon technique.  In this technique, a balloon is inflated and an inner portion of the endoscope is advanced further down the intestinal tract and a second balloon is inflated.  The first balloon is then deflated and it them moves down the gastrointestinal tract further.  Double balloon endoscopy allows us to endoscopically visualize and often treat intestinal problems that in the past were not accessible endoscopically without fairly major invasive surgery.

During an endoscopic procedure, a gastroenterologist can utilize a device that is designed to ablate the abnormal lining of the distal esophagus referred to as Barrett’s esophagus.  HALO ablation involves the use of radiofrequency which is able to deliver a very controlled amount of heat energy that penetrates the esophageal lining only to a certain depth.  To learn more about the use of HALO, visit website.

In this procedure, a feeding tube is inserted into the stomach endoscopically.  Under sedation and utilizing sterile technique, a small incision is made in the upper abdomen that allows for placement of the tube into the stomach.

Involves the insertion of an expandable metallic mesh or plastic silicone covered tube for the treatment of an obstruction in the gastrointestinal tract.

An examination of the deeper layers of the digestive tract utilizing a specially designed endoscope that has an ultrasound transducer at the tip.  Using ultrasound, or high-frequency sound waves, images of the layers of the gastrointestinal tract as well as other internal organs are obtained.  If needed, endoscopic ultrasound also allow for biopsy of lesions that are deeper than the mucosa or lesions that are in internal organs such as the pancreas.

Used to remove superficial cancerous lesions or precancerous lesions from the lining of the digestive tract.

Involves the examination of the colon (large intestine) and rectum using a small, flexible camera scope called a colonoscope.  Colonoscopy is also referred to as a lower endoscopy.

An examination of the bile ducts and pancreatic duct using a specially designed endoscope. Using an ERCP scope, a gastroenterologist may insert a small tube, or cannula, into either the bile duct or pancreatic duct or both. X-ray contrast is then injected into the ducts and x-rays of the ducts are obtained. ERCP is commonly used to treat gallstones in the bile duct, narrowing of the bile duct, and diseases of the pancreas.

A liver biopsy is performed to obtain a sample (biopsy) of liver tissue for examination under the microscope.  The results of a liver biopsy allows physicians to determine the type and severity of liver disease, to evaluate for the presence of tumor or infection, or to check existing conditions such as hepatitis or liver scar tissue (cirrhosis).

An endoscopic evaluation of the rectum and lower colon limited to the lower 60 cm of large bowel.  Unlike colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy does not evaluate the whole colon, but it does serve a purpose for the evaluation of various gastrointestinal problems.

A procedure to take out fluid that has collected in the free space of the abdomen.  The fluid that collects in the free spaces of the abdomen is called ascites.  Analysis of the fluid can help the physician determine the cause for ascites, and removal of the fluid can often prove therapeutic.

A procedure that uses a vitamin-sized capsule equipped with a wireless camera that takes pictures of the gastrointestinal tract as the camera travels through the small bowel.  The capsule is swallowed and an 8-hour movie of the gastrointestinal tract is transmitted to a recorder worn on a belt around the waist.  Prior to this technology, it was difficult to obtain clear images of the small intestine.

A study that assesses the movement and contractions of the esophagus.  The study assesses the strength and competence of the lower esophageal sphincter as well as the function of the esophageal waves that travel through the length of the esophagus.  A catheter is carefully inserted through the nose and into the stomach by a well-trained nurse.  Measurements are obtained over the course of 10 to 15 minutes using multiple swallows of water.  The procedure is generally well tolerated.

A study that measures how much stomach acid refluxes back up into the esophagus over the course of 24 hours. The patient has a small probe, or tube, inserted into their nose and down into the esophagus 5 cm above where the lower esophageal sphincter is measured to be present. The test is sometimes used to determine if gastroesophageal reflux is present and to assess a patient’s treatment to gastroesophageal reflux disease therapy.

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